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Fin de l’heure d’hiver ? petite histoire de l’heure officielle en France

La Commission européenne s’est dite favorable vendredi à l’adoption définitive de l’heure d’été.

Vous en aviez marre de vous demander deux fois par an s’il fallait reculer ou avancer sa montre ? Vous en aviez assez de ces discussions stériles devant la machine à café et de lire les mêmes articles tous les six ?


Rassurez-vous, c’est peut-être bientôt fini. Vendredi, la commission européenne a annoncé, par la voix de son président Jean-Claude Juncker, qu’elle souhaitait mettre un terme au changement d’heure et fixer notre continent sur l’heure d’été.


Si le Parlement européen et les Etats membres de l’Union européenne doivent entériner le changement, plébiscité dans une consultation en ligne, ce vendredi 31 août marque probablement le début de la fin d’un long feuilleton. Retour sur les différentes dates où le temps s’est ralenti ou accéléré en France.


1891 : la France se met à l’heure de Paris

L’Hexagone s’uniformise. Jusqu’à la fin du XIXe siècle, chaque coin de France dispose de son propre fuseau horaire, établi en fonction du soleil. La modernisation du pays, où le train a remplacé le cheval et le télégraphe s’est imposé, nécessite qu’il soit midi en même temps à Brest ou à Marseille. Toute la France s’aligne alors sur sa capitale.


1911 : l’Angleterre impose sa loi

Le 9 mars 1911 est une défaite française symbolique. Opposé à l’adoption du méridien de Greenwich comme référence mondiale au détriment de celui de Paris, notre pays fait de la résistance depuis 1884. Mais la France finit par céder, reculer ses horloges de neuf minutes et 21 secondes et passer à l’heure anglaise.


1916 : la Grande Guerre bouge les horloges

Nous sommes en plein milieu de la Première guerre mondiale. Plongée dans un coûteux conflit, la France veut économiser du charbon et du pétrole en allant chercher une heure d’ensoleillement naturel en plus le soir, via la création d’une heure d’été. Après un débat parlementaire houleux, les députés finissent par entériner le principe en 1917. La France adopte son premier changement d’heure annuel.


1940 : l’Allemagne impose son heure

La Wehrmacht défile dans les rues de Paris et Berlin impose son heure. En juin 1940, l’occupant allemand passe la zone occupée sur le fuseau horaire de l’Europe centrale. Le territoire géré par Vichy reste sur le créneau d’avant-guerre, ce qui cause quelques problèmes dans la circulation des trains. L’ensemble du pays finit par suivre les montres berlinoises, décrit Slate.


1945 : un entre-deux

A la Libération, la France fait la moitié du chemin inverse en supprimant le changement d’heure... mais en choisissant de rester en permanence à l’heure allemande d’hiver. L’Hexagone vit alors à la même heure qu’Outre-Rhin en hiver mais pas en été, où nos voisins changent leur montre.


1976 : le début de notre changement d’heure

Crise pétrolière oblige, la France cherche un moyen d’économiser son énergie. Le gouvernement de Valéry Giscard d’Estaing ressort des archives le changement d’heure afin d’aligner au mieux les heures d’activité et l’ensoleillement et de réduire les éclairages artificiels. La France repasse alors à l’alternance heure d’été-heure d’hiver allemande. Et l’est toujours actuellement.


Depuis 1976, plusieurs études sont toutefois venues dénoncer les conséquences de l’alternance sur notre psychisme ainsi que sur le comportement des animaux.


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